Jerusalem Weather Station   Height 775 m   Fri 1:54 24/11/17
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49°F
49°F  at hill
49
 Hi 00:34
49
 Lo 01:51
14 min: 0.0°F
24 hrs hour half hour
1.0
0.0
0.0
49°F  at valley
50
 Hi 00:34
49
 Lo 01:51
14 min: 0.0°F
24 hrs hour half hour
0.0
1.0
0.0
93 Hi 00:00     93 Lo 00:00
14 min: 0%
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0
0
0
9.0 Hi 00:34     8.1 Lo 01:51
14 min:
0
24 hrs hour half hour
38.7
39.7
38.7
1,019.4 Hi 00:46   1,019.2 Lo 01:34
24 hrs half hour quarter hour
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0 Hi 00:00
10 min Average: 0.0 knots
hour half hour quarter hour
0
0
0
0.0 Hi 00:00
hour half hour quarter hour
0
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0
 Hi 00:00
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0
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dust
19±8 µg/m3 (PM10)
13±6 µg/m3 (PM2.5)
PM10 - above 130 not healthy. Above 300 sport activity is not recommended
PM2.5 - above 38 not healthy. Above 100 sport activity is not recommended
PM2.5 is more dangerous
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Current Instability
Lo Medium Hi Extreme
12Z Radiosonde
850T = 5.2°F
700T = -4.3°F
500T = -18.3°F
Fire Index Haines Index
It is used to indicate the potential for wildfire growth by measuring the stability and dryness of the air over a fire.
Haines Index 3
Vertical Total Totals is a measure of the thunderstorm potential. VT represents static stability between 850 mb and 500 mb. Vertical 23.50 Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) represents the amount of energy a parcel might have if it were lifted. Often this reflects the strength of updrafts within a thunderstorm.
> 2000
-> enough energy to produce thunderstorms.
> 3000
-> enough energy to produce strong thunderstorms.
0
-> stable atmosphere
CAPE 67.10
Cross Totals Index is a measure of the frequency and intensity of thunderstorms. The CT includes the 850 mb dew point. Cross 22.20
Showalter Index is a measure of thunderstorm potential and severity. Especially useful when a shallow, cool layer of air below 850 mb conceals greater convective potential above. The SSI is a measure of the potential instability in the 850mb to 500 mb layer. The SSI is unrepresentative if the available low level moisture occurs below 850mb. Showalter 4.69 K Index is a measure of the thunderstorm potential.
35+
-> thunderstorms are likely.
< 10
-> skies are clear.
K 13.40
Lifted Index is a measure of the thunderstorm potential which takes into account the low level moisture availability. The LI field shows instability in the atmosphere by lifting a parcel of air from the surface to 500 mb and comparing its temperature to that of the environment.
< 0
-> thunderstorms are possible.
0 - -4
-> severe thunderstorms are possible.
10+
-> skies are clear.
Lifted 2.99
The SWEAT Index evaluates the potential for severe weather by examining both kinematic and thermodynamic information into one index. Parameters include low-level moisture (850 mb dewpoint), instability (Total Totals Index), lower and middle-level (850 and 500 mb) wind speeds, and warm air advection (veering between 850 and 500 mb). Unlike the K Index, the SWEAT index should be used to assess severe weather potential, not ordinary thunderstorm potential. SWEAT 117.82 Total Totals Index is a measure of thunderstorm potential. The Total Totals Index consists of two components: Vertical Totals (VT) and Cross Totals (CT). As a result, TT accounts for both static stability and 850 mb moisture. However, TT would be unrepresentative in situations where the low-level moisture resides below the 850 mb level.
< 45
-> thunderstorms are possible.
> 52
-> severe thunderstorms are possible.
< 40
-> skies are clear.
Totals 45.70
Bulk Richardson Number is a measure of thunderstorm type. BRN is proportional to CAPE and inversely proportional to shear difference. Bulk 2.26
Inversion Weak Medium Strong Extreme
thickness 68m base 2974m delta 0.4
Sounding Station Parameters and Indices

Sounding Station Parameters and Indices

SLATStation latitude in degrees
SLONStation longitude in degrees; West longitude is negative
SELVStation elevation in meters
SHOW Showalter index
SHOW= T500 - Tparcel
T500= Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb
Tparcel= Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb of a parcel lifted from 850 mb
LIFT Lifted index
LIFT= T500 - Tparcel
T500= temperature in Celsius of the environment at 500 mb
Tparcel= 500 mb temperature in Celsius of a lifted parcel with the average pressure, temperature, and dewpoint of the layer 500 m above the surface
LFTVLIFT computed by using virtual temperature.
SWET SWEAT index
SWET= 12 * TD850 + 20 * TERM2 + 2 * SKT850 + SKT500 + SHEAR
TD850 = Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb
TERM2 = MAX ( TOTL - 49, 0 )
TOTL = Total totals index
SKT850= 850 mb wind speed in knots
SKT500= 500 mb wind speed in knots
SHEAR = 125 * [ SIN ( DIR500 - DIR850 ) + .2 ]
DIR500= 500 mb wind direction
DIR850= 850 mb wind direction
KINX K index
KINX= ( T850 - T500 ) + TD850 - ( T700 - TD700 )
T850 = Temperature in Celsius at 850 mb
T500 = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb
TD850 = Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb
T700 = Temperature in Celsius at 700 mb
TD700 = Dewpoint in Celsius at 700 mb
CTOT Cross Totals index
CTOT= TD850 - T500
TD850 = Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb
T500 = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb
VTOT Vertical Totals index
VTOT= T850 - T500
T850= Temperature in Celsius at 850 mb
T500= Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb
TTOT Total Totals index
TOTL= ( T850 - T500 ) + ( TD850 - T500 )
T850 = Temperature in Celsius at 850 mb
TD850= Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb
T500 = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb
CAPE Convective Available Potential Energy (J/kg)
CAPE= GRAVTY * SUMP ( DELZ * ( TP - TE ) / TE )
SUMP= sum over sounding layers from LFCT to EQLV for which ( TP - TE ) is greater than zero
DELZ= incremental depth
TP = temperature of a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry adiabatically to the LCL and moist adiabatically thereafter
TE = temperature of the environment
CAPVCAPE computed by using the virtual temperature.
CAPV= GRAVTY * SUMP ( DELZ * ( TVP - TVE ) / TVE )
SUMP= sum over sounding layers from LFCV to EQTV for which ( TVP - TVE ) is greater than zero
DELZ= incremental depth
TVP = virtual temperature of a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry adiabatically to the LCL and moist adiabatically thereafter
TVE = virtual temperature of the environment
CINS Convective Inhibition (J/kg)
CINS= GRAVTY * SUMN ( DELZ * ( TP - TE ) / TE )
SUMN= sum over sounding layers from top of the mixed layer to LFCT for which ( TP - TE ) is less than zero.
DELZ= incremental depth
TP = temperature of a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry adiabatically to the LCL and moist adiabatically thereafter
TE = temperature of the environment
CINVCINS computed by using the virtual temperature.
CINV= GRAVTY * SUMN ( DELZ * ( TVP - TVE ) / TVE )
SUMN= sum over sounding layers from top of the mixed layer to LFCV for which ( TVP - TVE ) is less than zero.
DELZ= incremental depth
TVP = virtual temperature of a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry adiabatically to the LCL and moist adiabatically thereafter
TVE = virtual temperature of the environment
EQLVEquilibrium level (hPa)
EQLV= level at which a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere is raised dry adiabatically to the LCL and moist adiabatically to a level above which the temperature of the parcel is the same as the environment. If more than one Equilibrium Level exists, the highest one is chosen.
EQTVEQLV computed by using the virtual temperature.
LFCT Level of Free Convection (hPa) by comparing temperature between a parcel and the environment
LFCT= level at which a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere is raised dry adiabatically to LCL and moist adiabatically to the level above which the parcel is positively buoyant. If more than one LFCT exists, the lowest level is chosen. If the parcel is positively bouyant throughout the sounding, the LFCT is set to be the same as the LCLP.
LFCVLFCT computed by using the virtual temperature.
BRCH Bulk Richardson number
BRCH= CAPE / ( 0.5 * U**2 )
CAPE = Convective Available Potential Energy
U = magnitude of shear ( u2 - u1, v2 - v1 )
u1,v1= average u,v in the lowest 500 m
u2,v2= average u,v in the lowest 6000 m
BRCVBRCH computed by using CAPV
BRCV= CAPV / ( 0.5 * U**2 )
CAPV = CAPE computed by using the virtual temperature.
U = magnitude of shear ( u2 - u1, v2 - v1 )
u1,v1= average u,v in the lowest 500 m
u2,v2= average u,v in the lowest 6000 m
LCLT Temperature (K) at the LCL, the lifting condensation level, from an average of the lowest 500 meters.
LCLT= [1 / ( 1 / ( DWPK - 56 ) + LN ( TMPK / DWPK ) / 800 )] + 56
LCLP Pressure (hPa) at the LCL, the lifting condensation level, from an average of the lowest 500 meters.
LCLP= PRES * ( LCLT / ( TMPC + 273.15 ) ) ** ( 1 / KAPPA )
Poisson's equation
MLTHMean mixed layer THTA (K)
MLTH= average THTA in the lowest 500 m
MLMRMean mixed layer MIXR (g/kg)
MLMR= average MIXR in the lowest 500 m
THTK1000 mb to 500 mb thickness (meter)
THTK= ( Z500 - Z1000 )
Z500 = Height of the 500 mb surface
Z1000= Height of the 1000 mb surface
PWAT Precipitable water (mm) for the entire sounding.
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