SLAT  Station latitude in degrees


SLON  Station longitude in degrees; West longitude is negative


SELV  Station elevation in meters


SHOW 
Showalter index


 SHOW  = T500  Tparcel


  T500  = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb


  Tparcel  = Temperature in Celsius at
500 mb of a parcel lifted from 850 mb


LIFT 
Lifted index


 LIFT  = T500  Tparcel


  T500  = temperature in Celsius
of the environment at 500 mb


  Tparcel  = 500 mb temperature in Celsius
of a lifted parcel with the average pressure, temperature, and
dewpoint of the layer 500 m above the surface


LFTV  LIFT
computed by using
virtual temperature.


SWET 
SWEAT index


 SWET  = 12 * TD850 + 20 * TERM2 + 2 * SKT850 + SKT500 + SHEAR


  TD850  = Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb


  TERM2  = MAX ( TOTL  49, 0 )


  TOTL  = Total totals index


  SKT850  = 850 mb wind speed in knots


  SKT500  = 500 mb wind speed in knots


  SHEAR  = 125 * [ SIN ( DIR500  DIR850 ) + .2 ]


  DIR500  = 500 mb wind direction


  DIR850  = 850 mb wind direction


KINX 
K index


 KINX  = ( T850  T500 ) + TD850 
( T700  TD700 )


  T850  = Temperature in Celsius at 850 mb


  T500  = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb


  TD850  = Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb


  T700  = Temperature in Celsius at 700 mb


  TD700  = Dewpoint in Celsius at 700 mb


CTOT 
Cross Totals index


 CTOT  = TD850  T500


  TD850  = Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb


  T500  = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb


VTOT 
Vertical Totals index


 VTOT  = T850  T500


  T850  = Temperature in Celsius at 850 mb


  T500  = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb


TTOT 
Total Totals index


 TOTL  = ( T850  T500 ) + ( TD850  T500 )


  T850  = Temperature in Celsius at 850 mb


  TD850  = Dewpoint in Celsius at 850 mb


  T500  = Temperature in Celsius at 500 mb


CAPE 
Convective Available Potential Energy (J/kg)


 CAPE  = GRAVTY * SUMP ( DELZ *
( TP  TE ) / TE )


  SUMP  = sum over sounding layers from
LFCT to EQLV for which ( TP  TE ) is greater than zero


  DELZ  = incremental depth


  TP  = temperature of a parcel from the
lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry adiabatically to the LCL
and moist adiabatically thereafter


  TE  = temperature of the environment


CAPV  CAPE computed by using
the virtual temperature.


 CAPV  = GRAVTY * SUMP ( DELZ *
( TVP  TVE ) / TVE )


  SUMP  = sum over sounding layers from
LFCV to EQTV for which ( TVP  TVE ) is greater than zero


  DELZ  = incremental depth


  TVP  =
virtual temperature
of a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry
adiabatically to the LCL and moist adiabatically thereafter


  TVE  =
virtual temperature
of the environment


CINS 
Convective Inhibition (J/kg)


 CINS  = GRAVTY * SUMN ( DELZ * ( TP  TE ) / TE )


  SUMN  = sum over sounding layers from top of the mixed
layer to LFCT for which ( TP  TE ) is less than zero.


  DELZ  = incremental depth


  TP  = temperature of a parcel from
the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry adiabatically to the
LCL and moist adiabatically thereafter


  TE  = temperature of the environment


CINV  CINS computed by
using the virtual temperature.


 CINV  = GRAVTY * SUMN ( DELZ * ( TVP  TVE ) / TVE )


  SUMN  = sum over sounding layers from top of the
mixed layer to LFCV for which ( TVP  TVE ) is less than zero.


  DELZ  = incremental depth


  TVP  =
virtual temperature
of a parcel from the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere, raised dry
adiabatically to the LCL and moist adiabatically thereafter


  TVE  =
virtual temperature
of the environment


EQLV  Equilibrium level (hPa)


 EQLV  = level at which a parcel from the
lowest 500 m of the atmosphere is raised dry adiabatically to
the LCL and moist adiabatically to a level above which the
temperature of the parcel is the same as the environment. If more
than one Equilibrium Level exists, the highest one is chosen.


EQTV  EQLV
computed by using the virtual temperature.


LFCT 
Level of Free Convection (hPa) by
comparing temperature between a parcel and the environment


 LFCT  = level at which a parcel from the
lowest 500 m of the atmosphere is raised dry adiabatically to LCL
and moist adiabatically to the level above which the parcel is
positively buoyant. If more than one LFCT exists, the lowest
level is chosen. If the parcel is positively bouyant throughout
the sounding, the LFCT is set to be the same as the LCLP.


LFCV  LFCT
computed by using the virtual temperature.


BRCH 
Bulk Richardson number


 BRCH  = CAPE / ( 0.5 * U**2 )


  CAPE
 = Convective Available Potential Energy


  U  = magnitude of shear ( u2  u1, v2  v1 )


  u1,v1  = average u,v in the lowest 500 m


  u2,v2  = average u,v in the lowest 6000 m


BRCV  BRCH
computed by using CAPV


 BRCV  = CAPV / ( 0.5 * U**2 )


  CAPV
 = CAPE computed by using the virtual temperature.


  U  = magnitude of shear ( u2  u1, v2  v1 )


  u1,v1  = average u,v in the lowest 500 m


  u2,v2  = average u,v in the lowest 6000 m


LCLT 
Temperature (K) at the LCL, the lifting condensation level,
from an average of the lowest 500 meters.


 LCLT  = [1 / ( 1 / ( DWPK  56 ) +
LN ( TMPK / DWPK ) / 800 )] + 56


LCLP 
Pressure (hPa) at the LCL, the lifting condensation level,
from an average of the lowest 500 meters.


 LCLP  = PRES * (
LCLT / ( TMPC + 273.15 ) ) ** ( 1 / KAPPA )


  Poisson's equation


MLTH  Mean mixed layer THTA (K)


 MLTH  = average THTA in the lowest 500 m


MLMR  Mean mixed layer MIXR (g/kg)


 MLMR  = average MIXR in the lowest 500 m


THTK  1000 mb to 500 mb thickness (meter)


 THTK  = ( Z500  Z1000 )


  Z500  = Height of the 500 mb surface


  Z1000  = Height of the 1000 mb surface


PWAT 
Precipitable water (mm) for the entire sounding.

